Originally published in. Best Books of the. Year by the New York Times, this edition con- . Here are Keynes, Coolidge, Franco. Crash, the Great Depression and Roo- .
New Deal. And there are the wars that. The incredible repression and violence. Germany, Russia and China. There are wartime tactics, strate- . Hiroshima and Nagasaki. World War II and the harsh political.
The. rise of the superpowers . The book covers the economic. Europe and Japan; existentialism. Suez; Algeria; Israel; the New Africa of Kenya t- .
Idi Amin and apartheid; the radicalizing of. Latin America; the Kennedy years, Johnson. Vietnam, Nixon and Watergate, the Rea- . Gorbachev and peresfcroika; Saddam. Hussein and the Gulf War, And there are the.
Space Age, the expansion of scientific knowl- . He was assistant editor of Realties and. New Statesman from.
In 1. 98. 0. and 1. American Enterprise Institute.
Washington, D. C. He has received the Fran- . Boyer Public Policy Award and the Krug.
The scene opens in an artist's studio. The Artist's Dilemma (1901). The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Life and Letters of Lafcadio Hearn.
Of priking and of hunting for the hare Was al his lust, for no cost wolde he spare. I saw his sleeves purfiled at the hand With gris, and that the fineste of a land. Art History and Criticism OLD. The emotional approach is to interpret the subject matter through the artist's emotions.
Those Other Days, by E. I cried out in my anguish that it must be some terrible nightmare. For a moment he straightened himself, and I saw his.
Award for Excellence in Literature. Among his. other books are A History of the Jews, A History. English People, Intellectuals, and The Birth of. Modern: World Society 1.
JS3. 0. Modern Times unites historical and critical. It is far from being a simple chronicle, though a vast wealth of events. Frequently surprises. A latter- day Mencken, Johnson is witty, gritty and compulsively. It is a powerful, lively, compelling and provocative political. His central themes are the bankruptcy of moral relativism, social engi- . The book is bound to be controversial Never- .
Johnson's range is vast, his citations are impressive. He sees the century as an age of. THE WORLD FROM THE TWENTIES TO THE NINETIES. Revised edition copyright .
Printed in the. United States of America. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner.
For information address Harper. Collins Publishers, 1. East 5. 3rd Street, New.
York, NY 1. 00. 22. Johnson. artist, educator and enthusiast. Acknowledgements ix.
A Relativistic World 1. The First Despotic Utopias 4. Waiting for Hitler 1. Legitimacy in Decadence 1.
An Infernal Theocracy, a Celestial Chaos 1 7. The Last Arcadia 2. Degringolade 2. 30. The Devils 2. 61.
The High Noon of Aggression 3. The End of Old Europe 3. The Watershed Year 3.
Superpower and Genocide 3. Peace by Terror 4.
The Bandung Generation 4. Caliban's Kingdoms 5. Experimenting with Half Mankind 5.
The European Lazarus 5. America's Suicide Attempt 6. The Collectivist Seventies 6. The Recovery of Freedom 6.
Source Notes 7. 85. Acknowledgements. Among the many institutions and individuals to whom I am. I would especially like to thank the American Enterprise. Institute for Public Policy Research in Washington, which gave me.
Resident Scholar; Dr Norman Stone, who read the. Weidenfeld. Linda Osband; the copy- editor, Sally Mapstone; and my eldest son. Daniel Johnson, who also worked on the manuscript. It had stood for more than two hundred years. It was the. framework within which the European Enlightenment, the Industrial.
Revolution, and the vast expansion of human knowledge, freedom. But increasingly powerful telescopes were revealing. In particular, the motions of the planet Mercury deviated. Newtonian laws of physics.
Einstein's observations on the way. In fact the discovery that space and time are relative rather. Greece in the two decades c. The originality of Einstein, amounting to a form of genius, and the. In 1. 90. 7 he. published a demonstration that all mass has energy, encapsulated in. E = mc 2 , which a later age saw as the starting point in.
A- bomb. 3 Not even the onset of the European war. A RELATIVISTIC WORLD. General Theory of Relativity which would cover gravitational fields. Newtonian physics. In 1. 91. 5. news reached London that he had done it. The following spring, as.
British were preparing their vast and catastrophic offensive on. Somme, the key paper was. But it was of the essence of Einstein's methodology that he. The key one. was that a ray of light just grazing the surface of the sun must be bent.
The exper- . iment involved photographing a solar eclipse. The next was due on. May 1. 91. 9. Before the end of the war, the Astronomer Royal, Sir.
Frank Dyson, had secured from a harassed government the promise. Dyson said, 'Then Eddington will go mad and. Eddington's notebook records.
May there was a tremendous thunder- . Principe. The clouds cleared just in time for the eclipse at.
Eddington had only eight minutes in which to operate. We took. sixteen photographs.' Thereafter, for six nights he developed the. On the evening of 3 June, having. Cottingham, you won't have to go home alone.' Einstein. The expedition satisfied two of Einstein's tests, which were.
W. W. Campbell during the September 1. Tf it were proved that this effect does not exist in. A RELATIVISTIC WORLD 3. Eddington on 1. 5 December 1. In fact the 'red shift' was. Mount Wilson observatory in 1.
At the time, Einstein's professional. To the young philosopher Karl. Popper and his friends at Vienna University, 'it was a great exper- . Here was an attitude. Marx, Freud, Adler and even.
Einstein was looking for crucial. This, I felt, was the. Einstein's theory, and Eddington's much publicized expedition to. No. exercise in scientific verification, before or since, has ever attracted. The. tension mounted steadily between June and the actual announcement. Royal Society in London in September.
Whitehead, who was. Greek drama. We were the chorus commenting on the decree of destiny as disclosed in the. There was dramatic quality in the very.
Newton to remind us that the greatest of scientific generalizations was now. From that point onward, Einstein was a global hero, in demand at.
The impact of his theory was im- . But it was to illustrate. Karl Popper was later to term 'the law of unintended conse- . Innumerable books sought to explain clearly how the. General Theory had altered the Newtonian concepts which, for. Einstein himself summed it up thus. The . Buckminster Fuller was to send a famous cable to the.
Japanese artist Isamu Noguchi explaining Einstein's key equation in. It was. grasped that absolute time and absolute length had been dethroned. All at once, nothing seemed certain in. The world is out of joint', as Hamlet.
It was as though the spinning globe had been taken. At the beginning of the. Mistakenly but. perhaps inevitably, relativity became confused with relativism. He was bewildered by the relentless publicity and error. He wrote to his colleague Max. Born on 9 September 1.
Like the man in the fairy- tale who turned. Einstein was not a practising Jew, but he. God. He believed passionately in absolute standards.
His professional life was devoted to the quest not. He insisted the world could be divided. In the scientific. In the 1. 92. 0s he. For the rest of his life until his death in. He wrote to Born: 'You believe in a God who plays dice, and I.
I, in a wildly speculative way, am trying to capture. I firmly. believe, but I hope that someone will discover a more realistic way or. But. Einstein failed to produce a unified theory, either in the 1. He lived to see moral relativism, to him a disease, become a. There were times, he said at the end of his. They change our perception of the physical world and. But they also change our ideas.
The second. effect is often more radical than the first. The scientific genius. Galileo's empiricism created the ferment of natural. Newtonian physics formed the frame- .
Enlightenment, and so helped to. Indeed the political and social consequences. Darwinian ideas have yet to work themselves out, as we shall see. So, too, the public response to relativity was.
It formed a knife, inadvertently wielded. Judeo- Christian culture. By the. time Eddington verified Einstein's General Theory, Sigmund Freud. Most of his really original work had. The Interpretation of Dreams. He was a well- known and.
Carl Jung, before the. Great War broke out. But it was only at the end of the war that his. Well- born scions of military families, who had. They could not be cowards. Freud had long offered, in psychoanalysis.
Such methods had been abundantly used, in ever- growing. When the electric current was increased, men died under. Inquisition. The post- war fury of relatives at the cruelties. A RELATIVISTIC WORLD. Vienna General Hospital, led the Austrian government in 1. Freud. 1. 1 The. resulting controversy, though inconclusive, gave Freud the world- . Professionally, 1.
Berlin, and his pupil and future biographer, Ernest Jones. International Journal of Psycho- Analysis. But even more spectacular, and in the long run far more impor- .
Freud's works and ideas by. As Havelock Ellis said at the time, to the. Master's indignation, Freud was not a scientist but a great artist.
After eighty years' experience, his methods of therapy have proved. We now know that many of the central ideas of. They were, indeed, formu- .
Freud before the discovery of Mendel's Laws, the chromoso- . As Sir Peter Medawar. Mesmerism and phrenology: it. Moreover, as the young Karl Popper correctly noted at the time. Freud's attitude to scientific proof was very different to Einstein's. Marx's. Far from formulating his theories with a. Freud made them all- embracing and difficult to test at all.
As. one would expect, internal critics, like Jung, were treated as heretics. Havelock Ellis, as infidels.
Freud betrayed signs. Thus Ellis's. disparagement of his scientific status was dismissed as 'a highly.
My inclination', he wrote to Jung. Two. decades later, the notion of regarding dissent as a form of mental.
Soviet Union into a new form of political repression. His style in German was. Goethe Prize of the City of Frankfurt. The. anglicization of the existing Freudian texts became an industry in the. Twenties. But the new literary output expanded too, as Freud.
He believed in the. The dream was his starting- point. It was not, he wrote. Like the latter, it.
Gnosticism has always appealed to intellectuals. Freud offered a. particularly succulent variety. He had a brilliant gift for classical.
Greek and Latin. He was quick to. Sir James Frazer, whose The Golden. Bough began to appear in 1.
The meaning of dreams, the.
Bernard Shaw. Bernard. Shaw, 1. 85. 6- 1. A Descriptive. Chronology of His Plays, Theatrical Career, and Dramatic Theories Excerpted with. Charles A. Carpenter's Modern. British, Irish, and American Drama: A Descriptive Chronology, 1.
Periodic updates sent free of additional. Write him at < ccarpen@binghamton.
Word. Perfect or Microsoft Word, and he. Lehigh. Ave., Vestal NY 1.
Be sure to include your email address. July George Bernard Shaw is born. July 2. 6 in Dublin. August. Shaw begins writing a. William Archer, with working. The Way to a Woman's Heart, then Rheingold and.
Rhinegold, but eventually Widowers' Houses (1. March. After seeing a performance of As You Like It, Shaw writes to Archer. The decadence of the stage is awful.
We have our work cut out for us. I can tell you. My opinion of Shakspere has gone up prodigiously: my opinion. October. Having finished the first two acts of Rheingold, Shaw forewarns. Archer that he “has brought the romantic notion which possessed you. Rheingold. ought to be saved for a romantic play. This is realism.” When he reads.
Archer two days later, he records in his diary that. Archer having received it with contempt.”1.
August. Shaw writes. Tighe Hopkins, . Sometimes in spare moments I write dialogues; and. When. I have a few hundred of these dialogues worked up and interlocked, then a. Point. out to me any 'brilliant' person who can say as much. I repudiate brilliant. My business is to incarnate.
Zeitgeist, whereby I experience its impulse and universality, and it experiences. Nevertheless, there was a substratum of earnest in Mr. Gilbert's joking. With some justification, critics have quipped that the.
His call for women. His revision. 2. 2 years later (see August 1.
August. Shaw completes the evolution. Rhinegold into an antiromantic expos.
Grein complains to Shaw of the dearth of new British plays, and Shaw. Independent Theatre. December. Shaw's Widowers' Houses. Independent Theatre Society at the Royalty. Theatre in London.
It arouses intense and prolonged discussion, much of it. The first of his three . The play is published. Shaw in May 1. 89. Plays Pleasant. and Unpleasant will be significantly revised). After reading it Oscar. Wilde writes to Shaw, .
The shorthand and holograph manuscripts of the play are. Shaw's Early Texts: Play Manuscripts. Facsimile. In stark contrast. Shaw's theatrical achievement is the success met by Brandon Thomas's facetious. Charley's Aunt beginning nine days later, a run of 1,4.
To the equally recurring complaint that virtually. Shaw uses the. example of the slum landlord. Sartorius to point out that, as in real life, his plea that he does not. Grein's. Independent Theatre, incorporating satires of the Ibsen and New Woman fads. Its reputation will be heightened. November 1. 99. 1 which restores Shaw's highly discursive original. Early. Texts: Play Manuscripts in Facsimile (1.
Shaw next composes Mrs. Warren's Profession, partly in reaction to Arthur Wing Pinero's The. Second Mrs Tanqueray. The drama, which deals with a brothel manager and. Lord Chamberlain's Office.
The Stage. Society produces it in 1. August 1. 92. 4 (and. England until September. In November Shaw turns to a romantic theme and starts writing Arms.
Man, his first . His abrupt intrusion into a glamorous lady's bedroom starts a. At the finale he expresses his admiration for his. He accepts the conventional ideals.
This he. regards as a failure on their part at which he mocks bitterly. I do. not accept the conventional ideals. To them I oppose in the play the practical.
My whole secret. is that I have got clean through the old categories of good & evil, and. Sergius is ridiculous through. As. Gilbert sees, they dont work; but what Gilbert does not see is that there. It is this positive element. Arms & the Man a perfectly genuine.
Introduced into the. Richard Mansfield's repertory, it attracts good notices but.
December. Shaw finishes writing. Candida, designing it partly as . Marital conventions voiced by the husband, an urbane. After an auction. What Shaw detects in Ibsen's realistic plays. The holograph manuscript is published.
Early Texts: Play Manuscripts in Facsimile along with that of his. How He Lied to Her Husband.
January. Shaw's first drama criticisms. Saturday Review appear, beginning his full- fledged . Smyth Pigott, Examiner of Stage Plays since 1. Shaw writes. in the Saturday Review that it has been . George. Redford, a bank manager and friend of Pigott, is appointed and lasts until. March- April. Richard Mansfield tentatively accepts Shaw's Candida, but rejects. All the world is crying out for deeds—for.
When I step upon the stage I want to act—I'm. I must act—and. hugging my ankles for three mortal hours won't satisfy me in this regard.
Shaw—if. you will write for me a strong, hearty—earnest—noble—genuine. You'll have to write a play that a man can play and. The stage is for romance and love and truth and honor.
To make. men better and nobler. To cheer them on the way—. Life is real. And the grave is not its goal. Be not. like dumb, driven cattle.
Be a hero in the fight! A Doll's House. will be as flat as ditchwater when A Midsummer Night's Dream will still. He eloquently proclaims his basic humanistic and. Further, art should refine our. The great artist is he who goes a step.
This is why we value art. Philistine are attacking something. Mr Pinero. concentrating himself on a phase of life and sentiment which he thoroughly. Cayley Drummle confidant, or any other of the conventional. In The. Benefit of the Doubt he keeps within the territory he has actually explored.
Consciously or unconsciously, he has this time seen. He wrote his “beautiful little one act.
Napoleon and a strange lady” for the American actor- manager. Richard Mansfield and as a lure for Ellen Terry, but Mansfield turns it down. Terry cannot quite induce Henry Irving to perform it. It will not be given. June 1. 90. 7. In answer to a query. Mrs Warren's Profession from the critic Golding Bright when. Independent Theatre was considering it for production, Shaw first describes.
Mrs Warren is much worse than a. She is an organism of prostitution—a. Europe & is. proud of it. With her gains she has had her daughter highly educated and respectably. The. drama, of course, lies in the discovery and its consequences. These consequences. Nobody's conscience is smitten except, I hope, the conscience.
My intention is that they shall go home thoroughly uncomfortable. The play has horrified everyone who has heard it, but only as an honest. I want to make an end. I can, of the furtively lascivious Pharisaism of stage immorality, by a. The holograph manuscript. You Never Can Tell is published in Early Texts: Play Manuscripts.
Facsimile. In the Saturday. Review, Shaw clarifies his objections to farcical comedy (notably Oscar. Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest): . To laugh without sympathy is a ruinous abuse.
In its subtler forms it is dying very hard. My first three plays, Widowers' Houses.
The Philanderer, and Mrs Warren's Profession were what people. They were dramatic pictures of middle class society from the.
Socialist who regards the basis of that society as thoroughly. In Widowers' Houses you had the. In The. Philanderer you had the fashionable cult of Ibsenism and 'New Womanism'. In Mrs Warren's Profession. All three plays were criticisms of a special phase, the capitalist. But my four. subsequent plays, Arms & the Man, Candida, The Man.
Destiny (the one- act Napoleon piece) and the unnamed four act comedy. They. deal with life at large, with human nature as it presents itself through all. These later plays are of course infinitely.
And of. course the I. T. You must understand, however, that we are all on the friendliest.
I am rather flattered than otherwise at the preference of. In order to get a hearing, it was. Fortunately the matter was very easy. I found that I had only. I seriously meant just as it struck me.
My method is to take the utmost trouble to find the. And all the time. I am in earnest. My capers are part of a bigger. Shakespear, for instance, is to me one of the towers. Bastille, and down he must come.
As Shaw says in 1. Bishop. My Betters, 1. The first West End. October 1. 90. 7, with a run of 7. The holograph. manuscript of the play is published in Early Texts: Play Manuscripts in. Facsimile. April- May. Rehearsals of Shaw's.
You Never Can Tell, accepted for production at the Haymarket Theatre. Shaw considerately withdraws the play. June. On the occasion of a. T. I see now clearly enough that the eagerness with which. After. years of sham heroics and superhuman balderdash, Caste delighted everyone.
They. want realistic drama of complete brainy, passional texture all through. The decorative play, with its versified rhetoric, its timid little moments. And so even. the second- class public, though it still likes plenty of pictorial beauty.
His rationale. is that . December. Shaw finishes his chronicle. Caesar and Cleopatra, having begun it on Shakespeare's birthday.
April. The script far exceeds the prevailing norm for length, but he has. Act III to be completely removable. Conceived partly as a counter. Julius Caesar and Antony and Cleopatra, the drama reflects. German historian Friedrich Mommsen's portrait of a Caesar who came to.
Plutarch's more bloodthirsty conqueror, and offers. In. his attempt to revive the genre of heroic drama, Shaw designed the play to. The holograph manuscript of the play. Early Texts: Play Manuscripts in Facsimile along with. Napoleon, The Man of Destiny (1. July. Shaw completes Captain Brassbound's Conversion, whose protagonist. Lady Cicely is expressly designed for Ellen Terry; in fact, he wrote it .
In this melodramatic comedy, the charmingly self- possessed. Shaw's Caesar: . In August Shaw tells Terry, . None at all, indeed, for some time to come. Shaw- philosophy, in politics & sociology. Grein's Independent Theatre, begins its forty- year existence.
Shaw's You Never Can Tell. The Society will subsequently. London for several other Shaw plays, including Mrs.
Warren's Profession (already censored). May. Shaw begins planning.